Annex C (Informative) Calculation of corona radius and surge impedance under corona Annex D (Informative) Calculation of failure probability. formulas, and examples are provided to calculate whether substation equipment is .. CALCULATION OF DSLP BY CIRCULAR SPHERE PROTECTION FOR. COVER SHEET DOCUMENT COVER SHEET Direct Stroke Lightning Protection Calculation / / 33kV Indrapuram Substation 0.


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With this design, there is an ease of operation of the substation.

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This design also places minimum reliance on signalling for satisfactory operation of protection. Additionally there is the facility to support the economical dslp calculation of future feeder bays.

Such a substation has dslp calculation following characteristics. Each circuit is protected by its own circuit breaker and hence plant outage does not necessarily result in loss of supply. A fault on the feeder or transformer circuit breaker causes loss of the transformer and feeder circuit, one of which may be restored after isolating the faulty dslp calculation breaker.


A fault on the bus section circuit breaker causes complete shutdown of the substation. All circuits may be restored dslp calculation isolating the faulty circuit breaker. A busbar fault causes loss of one transformer and one feeder. Maintenance of one busbar section or isolator will cause the temporary outage of two circuits.

Maintenance dslp calculation a feeder or transformer circuit breaker involves loss of the circuit. Introduction of bypass isolators between busbar and circuit isolator allows circuit breaker maintenance facilities without loss of that circuit. Mesh Substation The general layout for a full mesh substation is shown in the schematic below.

The characteristics of such a substation are as follows.

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Operation of two circuit breakers is required to connect or disconnect a circuit, and disconnection involves opening of a mesh. Circuit breakers may be maintained without loss of supply or protection, and no additional bypass facilities are required.

Busbar faults will only cause the loss of dslp calculation circuit breaker. Breaker faults will involve the loss of a maximum of two circuits. Some characteristics of this design are: Dslp calculation is the additional cost of the circuit breakers together with the complex arrangement.


It is possible to operate any one dslp calculation of dslp calculation, or groups of pairs of circuits. There is a very high security against the loss of supply.

Principle of Substation Layouts Substation layout consists essentially in arranging a number of switchgear components in an ordered pattern governed by their function and rules of spatial separation.

Spatial Separation Earth Clearance: Dslp calculation limits of this work section, or maintenance zone, may be the ground or a platform from which the man works.

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Separation dslp calculation maintenance zones Two methods are available for separating equipment in a maintenance zone that has been isolated and made dead. The provision of a section clearance 2. Use of an intervening earthed barrier The choice between the two methods depends on the voltage and whether horizontal dslp calculation vertical clearances are involved.

Dslp calculation section clearance is composed of a the reach of a man, taken as 8 feet, plus an earth clearance. For the voltage at which the earth clearance is 8 feet, the space required will be the same whether a section clearance or an earthed barrier is used.

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