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Sartrean Existentialism held the youth enthralled, and not only in France. And again it fit none better than the philosopher Sartre who certainly refused to restrict himself to interpreting the world and most assuredly was bent on uprooting it.

Critique of Dialectical Reason

Sartrean Existentialism was not enclosed in an ivory tower, and by its identification of Freedom with Revolution it maintained its hold on the youth.

But the critique de la raison dialectique did not come or were aborted, and now the new Sartre had a new testing ground.

No matter what one thinks of Being and Nothingness, there is no doubt about its originality or its being a carefully elaborated, closely argued work. The individual is in anguish, loneliness. Frustration is in infinite regress.


Now, on the other hand, the very nature of the Individual, as of the masses, critique de la raison dialectique to allow him to be reduced to inert practicality.

Whatever it is that Sartre, as the committed intellectual who at present claims to be an adherent of Marxism, critique de la raison dialectique in and bases his activities on, Sartre, as the Existential philosopher, has followed a straight line of being grounded in defeats and only defeats.

In the s it was not the sit-down strikes in France, which destroyed the pretensions of fascism in his native land, nor the Spanish Revolution in Europe, but rather the proletarian defeats by German and Spanish fascism that set the climate for Being and Nothingness.

In the s, it was not the Hungarian revolt against Communist totalitarianism that created the climate for Question de Methode, but the stasis of Communism. But this is only the opposite side of the same coin — a stasis; a listing of opposites, not a live struggle, surely not one in which masses have their say.


Thus human nature is shown by a state of affairs which bears a marked resemblance to a concentration camp. Out of neither does there emerge a method, a direction, a development.

Critique De La Raison Dialectique by Sartre, Jean-Paul

The coincidentia oppositorum is accomplished not through a dialectical process, but through their complete establishment as ontological characteristics. As such, they are transtemporally simultaneous and structurally identical. Sartre himself must have had some recognition that critique de la raison dialectique philosophy had reached an impasse.

Surely, this was a vent which the Resistance created for itself. But it is no less true that no academic philosopher ever desired more desperately not merely to interpret the world, but to change it.

Also, Sartre did recognise his petty-bourgeois character, and none labored harder to overcome bourgeois origins. Let us see what Sartre makes out of the masses in that most creative act of revolution, in the single current event he does deal with in Question de Methode: But this does not alter the fact that they did critique de la raison dialectique exist in Hungary at the time of the first Soviet intervention; and their appearance during the Insurrection was much too brief and too troubled for us to be able to speak of an organised democracy.

The myriad of new tendencies whether critique de la raison dialectique the actual Hungarian Revolution or in the near-revolutions in Poland become the second sacrifice to the Sartrean totalisation: The Marxian dialectic was thus not a mere standing of Hegelian philosophy on its feet instead of its head.

It was Marx who was universalising their praxis. But one unstated yet all-pervading dogmatism continues to be the underlying motif of all Sartre thinks, writes, does. It may not be fair to judge Sartre by the uncompleted Critique, especially as he has announced that the subject of history proper would first be analysed in Volume II.

But we concentrated on the question of method precisely because it is complete in itself and has been recognised by Sartre himself as the summation of the whole work, since there is no other proof of dialectic methodology but the whole content of what preceded it.

Because Sartre has the historic process as an abstraction, in stasis, it has remained motionless. Precisely because Sartre is unable to conceive of the specific content having specific forms of movement, he is always driven to accept an outside force as the mediator.

History and the Dialectic of Violence: An Analysis of Sartre's Critique De La Raison Dialectique

Critique de la raison dialectique his hatred for the word driven, Sartre seems always to obey its dictates, to use categories of a lower order like inert practicality, which he himself has created and which preclude self-movement.

Just as in Being and Nothingness the Being-in-itself and Being-for-itself remain as apart at the end as at the start, so in Critique there is no self-development though the individual is now social man, and the past is not rejected but recognised as Critique de la raison dialectique with a capital H.

That this generalisation flies in the face of all Marx wrote and all Marx did, which the new Sartre wishes to resuscitate, does not deter him.


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