File:Batalla de Gaugamela (M.A.N. Inv) jpg The Battle of Gaugamela References, Museum's website – Web del museo – Site du musée. Esta batalla tuvo lugar el 1 de octubre de a. C. en Gaugamela, en la ribera del río Bumodos, tributario del Gran Zab. Dicho lugar se encuentra a unos 27 km. The last great pitched battle between the forces of Alexander the Great and the massed army of the Achaemenid Persian emperor Darius III.


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File:Batalla de Gaugamela (M.A.N. Inv) jpg - Wikimedia Commons

This second line consisted of mostly mercenaries. Beginning of the battle Alexander batalla de gaugamela by ordering his infantry to march in phalanx formation towards the center of the enemy line.

The Macedonians advanced with the wings echeloned back at 45 degrees to lure the Persian cavalry to attack. While the phalanxes battled the Persian infantry, Darius sent a large part of his cavalry and some of his regular batalla de gaugamela to attack Parmenion's forces batalla de gaugamela the left.

During the battle Alexander used an unusual strategy which has been duplicated only a few times.


While the infantry battled the Persian batalla de gaugamela in the centre, Alexander began to ride all the way to the edge of the right flank, accompanied by his Companion Cavalry. His plan was to draw as much of the Persian cavalry as possible to the flanks, to create a gap within the enemy line where batalla de gaugamela decisive blow could then be struck at Darius in the centre.

This required almost perfect timing and manoeuvring and Alexander himself to act first. He would force Darius to attack as they would soon move off the prepared groundthough Darius did not want to be the first to attack after seeing what happened at Issus against a similar formation.

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In the end, Darius' hand was forced, and he attacked. The cavalry battle in the Hellenic right wing The Scythian cavalry from the Persian left wing opened the battle by attempting to flank Alexander's extreme right.

What followed was a long and fierce cavalry battle between the Persian left and the Macedonian right, in which the latter, being greatly outnumbered, was often hard-pressed.

However, by careful use of reserves and disciplined charges, the Greek troops were able to contain their Batalla de gaugamela counterparts, which would be batalla de gaugamela for the success of Alexander's decisive attack.

As told by Arrian: Then the Scythian cavalry rode along the line, and came into conflict with the front men of Alexander's array, but he nevertheless still continued to march towards the right, batalla de gaugamela almost entirely got beyond the ground which had been cleared and levelled by the Persians.

File:Batalla de Gaugamela (M.A.N. Inv.1980-60-1) 01.jpg

Then Darius, fearing that his chariots would become useless, if the Macedonians advanced into the uneven ground, ordered the front ranks of his left wing to ride round the right wing of the Macedonians, where Alexander was commanding, to prevent him from marching his wing any further.

This being done, Alexander ordered the cavalry of the Grecian mercenaries under the command of Menidas to attack them. But the Scythian cavalry and the Bactrians, who batalla de gaugamela been drawn up with them, sallied forth against them and being much more numerous they put the small body of Greeks to rout.

Alexander then ordered Aristo at the head of the Paeonians and Grecian auxiliaries to attack the Scythians, and the barbarians gave way. But the rest of the Bactrians, drawing near to the Paeonians and Grecian auxiliaries, batalla de gaugamela their own comrades who were already in flight to turn and renew the battle; and thus they brought about a general cavalry engagement, in which more of Alexander's men fell, not only being overwhelmed by the multitude of the barbarians, but also because the Scythians themselves and their horses were much more completely protected with armour for guarding their bodies.

Notwithstanding this, the Macedonians sustained their assaults, and assailing them violently squadron by squadron, they succeeded in pushing them out of rank.

By batalla de gaugamela, however, the battle had been decided in the center by Alexander himself. The Persians also who were riding round the wing were seized with alarm when Aretes made a vigorous attack upon them.

In this quarter indeed the Persians took to speedy flight; and the Macedonians followed up the fugitives and slaughtered them. Those chariots who made it through the barrage of javelins charged the Macedonian lines, which responded by opening up their ranks, creating alleys through which the chariots passed harmlessly.

Battle of Gaugamela - Wikipedia

batalla de gaugamela The Hypaspists and the armed grooms of the cavalry then attacked and eliminated these survivors. Alexander's decisive attack Alexander's decisive attack Darius flees 18th-century ivory relief As the Persians advanced farther and farther to the Greek flanks in their attack, Alexander slowly filtered in his rear guard.

He disengaged his Companions and prepared for the decisive attack. Behind them were the guard's brigade along batalla de gaugamela any phalanx battalions he could withdraw from the battle.

He formed his units into a giant wedge, with him leading the charge.

Category:Battle of Gaugamela - Wikimedia Commons

The Persian infantry at batalla de gaugamela center was still fighting the phalanxes, hindering any attempts to counter Alexander's charge. This large wedge then smashed into the weakened Persian center, taking out Darius' batalla de gaugamela guard and the Greek mercenaries. Darius was in danger of being cut off, and the widely held modern view is that he now broke and ran, with the rest of his army following him.

This is based on Arrian's account: For a short time there ensued a hand-to-hand fight; but when the Macedonian cavalry, commanded by Alexander himself, pressed on vigorously, thrusting themselves against the Persians and striking their faces with their spears, and when the Macedonian phalanx in dense array and bristling with long pikes batalla de gaugamela also made an attack upon them, all things together appeared full of terror to Darius, who had already long been in a state of fear, so that he was the first to turn and flee.

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