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In the cold climate that prevails at high latitudes, animals whose surface area is relatively small large body size is associated with relatively small surface area lose less heat.

The reverse is true in a warm climate, where animals face the problem of heat dissipation, and the larger the surface area, the quicker such dissipation occurs.

Conversely, small-bodied animals may satisfy their energetic demands with smaller amounts of food, and, under harsh conditions, when food is scarce, they may survive better. Similarly, Tornberg et al. NAO predicts the weather, including ambient temperature, precipitation, and winds, throughout the North-Atlantic region.

A positive NAO index implies relatively strong westerly winds across the mid-latitudes of the Atlantic to Europe, resulting in cool, wet summers and mild, wet winters in Europe and to cold and dry winters in Greenland.

In contrast, when the NAO is negative, European winters will be cold, while Greenland will have milder winter temperatures. It has been shown that the NAO index is related to changes in ecological ecosystems and animal biology reviewed by Mysterud et al. These relationships are reflected in synchronization and spatial dichotomy of the al youm 7-pdf split and merge dynamics of caribou and musk oxen populations across Greenland Forchhammer et al.

Herbivores living in Arctic regions may also be affected by a peculiar phenomenon called rain-on-snow ROS events, when ambient temperature drops below zero after rain, and a layer of ice forms above the ground. Warm winters may result in a high likelihood of the occurrence of ROS events, reducing food availability catastrophically by forming a thick ice layer on the ground, trapping the short-growing vegetation and suppressing food al youm 7-pdf split and merge Hansen et al.

This climate pattern may explain the inconsistencies in the north-south cline of the skull size of the Arctic hare in Greenland observed by Baker et al. In order to test this prediction, we examined the effects of sex, latitude, longitude, and winter and summer seasonal ambient temperature, as well as summer and winter NAO during collection year, on the skull size of Arctic hares collected in Greenland during the 20th century.

Only skulls of adults were measured and were defined as such by their teeth and the fusion of the cranial bones Morris, Most of the specimens were collected during the period — Collection effort had not been uniform throughout the studied period: For each skull, we noted from its label or museum catalogue its sex, locality latitude and longitudeand date of collection Supporting Information, Table S1.


Hares collected between 1 January and 30 June in a particular year were assigned to the previous year because Arctic hares give birth between May and July. Using digital calipers, four measurements were taken from each skull to an accuracy of 0.

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Our skull data are relatively evenly distributed across latitude and longitude in Greenland Fig. From these data, we assigned a winter and summer surface temperature to each skull measurement according to year and coordinates of collection.


Both summer and winter temperatures may affect body size of hares, even after their initial growth. Hare al youm 7-pdf split and merge may also be affected by temperature, as light and heavy hares may have differential mortality under different temperatures.

The general average mean surface temperature during winter and summer in Greenland over the period of years; — is presented in Figure 2a. The correlation between mean surface temperature and NAO, a proxy for the climate regime, during winter and summer in Greenland over the period of 65 years; —is presented in Figure 2b.

The spatial occurrence of ROS in Greenland during winter and summer presented in Figure 2c was calculated using the model and 45 years of data — given in Rennert et al.


The purpose of Figure 2 is for illustrating the climatic regime across Greenland only. Data on ROS frequency over the period of hare sampling are not available.

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We used principal component analysis PCA to combine the data from the four skull measurements into a single variable, denoted thereafter as PC1. We used a linear mixed model to test al youm 7-pdf split and merge effect of latitude, longitude, surface temperature, NAO independent variablesand their interactions on hare skull size PC1, dependent variableas these factors are considered most likely to affect body and skull size Yom-Tov et al.

Month of collection was added as a random effect. The PCA clumped the four morphological measurements into a single factor PC1which accounted for Therefore, we did not include gender in further analyses see below.

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Hayil Kravi Combat Corps — responsible for combat operations Delek "Gasoline" — the intelligence section; responsible for gathering and translating intelligence, and maintaining contact with local and foreign journalists HAT Planning Division — responsible for planning activities HATAM Revolutionary Publicity Corps — responsible for printing and disseminating propaganda In theory, the Irgun was supposed[ by whom?

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